By Ian S. F. Jones, Yoshiaki Toba
Parameterization of the wind stress--drag--over the sea is significant to many aspects of air-sea interplay, which in flip is key for versions of climate prediction and weather modeling. Wind pressure over the sea brings jointly thirty of the world's best specialists in air-sea interplay, lower than the auspices of the medical Committee on Oceanic learn. The contributed chapters find the money for a radical reexamination of the actual techniques that move momentum among the ambience and the sea. as well as overlaying demonstrated basics, the publication additionally explores lively components of study and controversy for researchers and graduate scholars in actual oceanography, meteorology, fluid dynamics, and coastal engineering.
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Extra resources for Wind Stress over the Ocean
1958; Brocks 1959), but there were still no data at wind speeds above 13 m/s. By the end of the 1950s, there was some agreement on the value of CD but there was still no consensus on its wind speed dependence. It began to appear that openocean coefficients were slightly lower than those from semi-enclosed waters. 2a) Although this is in fact quite similar to modern results, the existence of a dependence on wind speed was not well established from the data then available. 3 The 1960s In the 1960s an era of large international field projects began, with an emphasis on tropical seas.
By the late 1960s there were suggestions that the drag coefficient should depend inversely on wave age (Stewart 1974; Kitaigorodskii and Volkov 1965; Volkov 1970), and the first use of hot-wire and sonic anemometers to measure wind stress by the direct eddy-correlation and the indirect dissipation methods (Weiler and Burling 1967). Other indirect methods for estimating fluxes were also employed, notably the ageostrophic method (Charnock et al. 004 for a wind speed of 45 m/s; there is still no eddy flux data at such high speeds.
Waves of length order 2 cm travel at the slowest speed and shorter waves travel faster and are increasingly dominated by surface tension. 15 Summary 31 surface tension has a role to play in the form drag. The whitecaps, manifestation of rising bubbles entrained in breaking events, are also believed to be influenced by surfactants which change the viscoelastic nature of the water surface as well as lower the surface tension. The next fourteen chapters have been provided for those who wish to probe deeper into the complexities of momentum transfer at the sea surface.