Solar Cells and Energy Materials by Takeo Oku

By Takeo Oku

This e-book bargains an advent to sun cells and effort fabrics includingnew fabrics in accordance with organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and advancements in additional conventional photovoltaic fabrics.

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Phys Rep. 267; 1996: 195–373. [35]Ogawa I, Matsuki S, Yamamoto K. Interactions of cosmic axions with Rydberg atoms in resonant cavities via the Primakoff process. Phys Rev D. 1996; 53: R1740–R1744. [36]Perlmutter S, Aldering G, Della Valle M, Deustua S, Ellis RS, Fabbro S, Fruchter A, Goldhaber G, Goobar A, Groom DE, Hook IM, Kim AG, Kim MY, Knop RA, Lidman C, McMahon RG, Nugent P, Pain R, Panagia N, Pennypacker CR, Ruiz-Lapuente P, Schaefer B, Walton N. Discovery of a supernova explosion at half the age of the Universe.

Dirac predicted the existence of antimatter theoretically, and Anderson found positron antimatter in 1932 [2]. Positrons have the same weight as electrons, a positive charge, and combine with electrons. An electron and positron pair is formed from high energy light such as gamma rays, and, after pair annihilation, becomes a photon again. In 1996, researchers at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) succeeded in synthesizing antihydrogen atoms, as shown in Fig. 2(b). An antihydrogen atom consists of antiparticles and is the form of antimatter with the simplest structure.

Fig. 3: Schematic illustration of BEC. Other BEC-related systems include lasers, superconductivity, superfluidity and excitons. Since photons (bosons) have characteristics that place them in the same quantum state, laser light is produced by the coherent phase of the photon wave. Superconductivity and superfluidity are phenomena in which electron pairs and helium atoms are Bose-condensed. Excitons are pairs of a hole and an electron which are Bose-condensed. Such phenomena related to quantum coherence have been observed for C60 fullerene [8].

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