By Juan Gomez-Quinones
This sweeping and unique synthesis reinterprets borderlands background from the Mexican standpoint. The zone incorporated at the present time within the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas shaped the a ways northern frontier of latest Spain within the 17th and eighteenth centuries. After 1821 it grew to become part of the newly autonomous Mexico, which quickly misplaced the land north of the Rio Bravo (or the Rio Grande) to the increasing usa. Explored listed below are the various reports over approximately 350 years of Mexicans dwelling in lands north of the Rio Bravo. Professor Gomez-Quinones examines Mexicans' interactions first with Indians after which Anglos and delineates what alterations happened in Mexican and Mexican-American identification and political awareness. This new interpretation of Mexicans in borderlands heritage emerges from a wide-ranging research together with politics and governance, repression and violence, gender and ethnicity, hegemony and beliefs, and cultural and social swap.
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Extra resources for Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600-1940
Ethnicity and ethnic relations are shaped predominantly by economics and politics, not by the ideas or sentiments that rationalize their existence. Force, violence, and repression had much to do with the making of colonial Mexico, including its far northern communities; but so did the less dramatic means for ensuring production and order. The Indian and the mestizo were viewed in particular ways because of their lack of property; hence, their lack of political influence. But they also responded within this context.
Within the vast, lengthy, and diverse process of colonization, the measures of dominationethnicity, culture, language, ideology, and comportmentalso comprised the commonalities of resistance. In the diversity of the colonial experiment, a geographical, sociological, and historical center, the Central Valley of Mexico, or Anahuac, contained a predominant people, the Mexica, who joined community and land into Mexicoytl, an abstraction that commanded supreme value, linking people together both socially and economically.
Although all hidalgos could be called to serve in the military, there was no standing army in the first years of the colony, only small regular detachments of the viceroy, the audiencias, and a few regular garrisons stationed at the frontier and at the ports where bullion was exported. This militia provided an avenue of mobility for those of modest means and the poor, as well as mestizos and colonists of European descent. In 1789, the new Bourbon regime succeeded the Hapsburg dynasty, redividing the country on the basis of intendencias, which were headed by intendentes, officials who were paid a salary.