By Aviezer Tucker
This ebook offers a philosophical research of the disciplines that display medical wisdom of the prior. Aviezer Tucker argues that historiography as a systematic self-discipline will be thought of an try to learn the proof of prior occasions. This new method of historiography will curiosity philosophers, historians and social scientists inquisitive about the methodological foundations in their disciplines.
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An analysis of the consensus group may discover separate subgroups that share their beliefs because of their different biases. Miriam Solomon (2001) advocated such an explanation of scientific consensus on beliefs. Solomon suggested that individual scientists choose among competing theories according to their different biases. Scientific consensus on beliefs results from different biases, decision vectors, in her terminology, that somehow have the same effect. Better scientific theories are affected by a greater variety and distribution of biases than theories that follow a more narrow range of biases.
Scientists may share cognitive values, but still disagree because they dispute the evidence or have different theoretical backgrounds. If shared cognitive values are necessary but insufficient conditions for the emergence of consensus on beliefs, the knowledge hypothesis may have to be qualified as relative to particular sets of cognitive values. It is possible to avoid this conclusion by denying that consensus on facts, methods, and theories necessitates consensus on cognitive values (Laudan, 1984, pp.
Coercion can only ensure that the evolution of tradition is uniform. A crisis in traditionalist cognitive values emerges when members of a community that share a tradition encounter other groups that have different kinds of traditionalist cognitive values, other rules for recognition of legitimate traditions. The realization that other communities have different traditionalist cognitive values shakes the confidence members of homogenous communities have in their own traditionalist cognitive values.