By Anne Fagot-Largeault (auth.), A. Berthoz, Yves Christen (eds.)
At the start of the 20 th century, German biologist Jakob von Uexküll created the concept that of "Umwelt" to indicate the surroundings as skilled through an issue. this idea of setting differs from the belief of passive atmosphere and is outlined not only via actual atmosphere, yet is very a "subjective universe", an area weighted with which means. in accordance with this angle, a residing organism, regardless of how simple (such because the tick studied via von Uexküll), created its personal universe whilst it interacts with the area and as this related time the organism reshapes it.
Today, neuroscience offers a brand new method to examine the brain’s potential to create a illustration of the realm. whilst behavioural experts are demonstrating that animals have a richer psychological universe than formerly recognized. Philosophical mirrored image hence reveals itself with extra experimental and aim information to boot. approximately a century after the ebook of von Uexküll’s founding paintings ( "Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere" was once released in 1909), neurobiologists, psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, ethologists, and philosophers revisit his mail thought on the gentle of recent science
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1991). When the interconnectivity of these nuclei is combined with the intrinsic properties of the individual neurons, a network for resonant neuronal oscillation emerges in which specific cortico-thalamo-cortical circuits would tend to resonate at gamma frequency. According to this hypothesis, neurons at the different levels, and most particularly those in the reticular nucleus, would be responsible for the synchronization of gamma oscillation in distant thalamic and cortical sites. As we will see later, these oscillations may be organized globally over the CNS, especially as it has been shown that neighboring reticular-nucleus cells may be linked by dendro-dendritic and intranuclear axon collaterals (Deschenes et al.
2005). The human brain has a repertoire of cognitive strategies that is even more flexible (Amorim et al. 1997; Committeri et al. 2004; Galati et al. 2000; Lambrey and Berthoz 2007; Mellet et al. 2000; Schmidt et al. 2007; Vidal et al. 2004). The activity in parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex is related to a changing point of view. The right hippocampus has become mainly specialized in allocentric coding of spatial relations and events. The left hippocampus has become specialized in sequential egocentric memory of travelled routes and episodic memory (which fits with the language description of itineraries), and this may correspond to hemispheric lateralization for spatial competences (global on the right; detailed, categorical on the left), although this point is still debated.
1958; Castaigne et al. 1962). 5 Binding of Specific and Nonspecific Gamma-Band Activity as the Basis for Umwelt A schematic of a neuronal circuit that may subserve temporal binding is presented in Figure 2. Gamma oscillations in neurons in specific thalamic nuclei (Llin´as and Steriade 2006) establish cortical resonance through direct activation of pyramidal cells and feed forward inhibition through activation of 40-Hz inhibitory interneurons in layer IV (Llin´as et al. 1991). These oscillations return to the thalamus via layer VI pyramidal cell axon collaterals (Steriade et al.