Maricopa Morphology and Syntax (University of California by Lynn Gordon

By Lynn Gordon

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Example text

In contrast, to say that a statement is inconsistent makes no such reference: the fault lies within the statement itself. In a deductive argument that is valid, if the premises are true, then the conclusion is necessarily true under pain of inconsistency or self-contradiction. If the purpose of speech is communication, then a man who truly contradicts himself does not really say anything. We must, however, be careful not to rush to judgement. Asked if the results of a recent election pleased me or not, I may significantly reply that they did and they did not.

A truthfunctional formula in any expression can be obtained by either writing “–” before any variable, or by writing any one of the constants with a variable on each side of it. Formulae obtained in this way are simple, for example, “–q”, and “p ⊃ q”, and these may be used to obtain complex formulae. The latter involve the use of parentheses to determine the scope of the constants, that is, the range of expressions they govern. In order to prevent ambiguity, it is then necessary 32 “On Referring” and Introduction to Logical Theory to establish some way of indicating precedence.

The two premises and the conclusion each contain two terms. Each term of a syllogism has a form or mood: A, E, I or O. There are four figures, which are determined by the location of the middle term which is common to the two premises. Thus with s for subject, p for predicate and m for middle: Figure 1 m p s m s p 2 p m s m s p 3 m p m s s p 4 p m m s s p 39 Peter Strawson Each of the four figures has 64 moods (all the permutations of the four moods over the four terms in the figure), so there are altogether 256 possible forms of the syllogism.

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