Encyclopedia of Marine Sciences by Hanneke J.G. Baretta-Bekker, Egbert K. Duursma, Bouwe R.

By Hanneke J.G. Baretta-Bekker, Egbert K. Duursma, Bouwe R. Kuipers

The multidisciplinary personality of this encyclopedia of marine sciences (Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Physics in Oceanography) is gifted in 3000 updated, alphabetically indexed key words, and lots of illustrations, which offer scientists, academics, and scholars a invaluable and time-saving relief while learning marine clinical literature. The short clarification of the recommendations, terminology and techniques make this ebook extra necessary than a natural word list or dictionary.

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Brunt (1927) and V. Viiisiilii (1925). Bryozoa (syn. Polyzoa or Ectoprocta, bryozoans) phylum of the Lophophor- ates (see ->Iophophore). Though they are not as familiar as other invertebrates, bryozoans are one of the most important phyla with some 4000 extant species. They are small « 1 mm) sessile animals living in colonies that can cover fixed substrates like stones or shells or have a structure reminiscent of moss (hence " moss animals" ). They live in freshwa ter as well as marine, mainly coastal, waters, but some species occur as deep as 8000 m.

Carbonate, mineral mineral compound characterized by a fundamental anionic structure ofC0 3 2 - • The common rock-forming calcium carbonate (CaC0 3 ) exists as the mineral polymorphs calcite and aragonite. Both may form as inorganic precipitates or as biological secretions in the hard parts of organisms. Many multicellular invertebrates, lime-secreting algae and foraminifers produce hard parts of coverings and skeletal carbonate material which eventually become part of ocean sediments or reefs.

In the surface ocean the concentrations of C0 3 2 - and Ca 2 + are sufficiently high for supersaturation of CaC0 3 as crystalline calcite or aragonite, allowing organisms to form calcareous shells and platelets. Abiotic precipitation of CaC0 3 does not occur. Eventually, the skeletal material settles to the deep sea floor, where sometimes the ambient concentration ofC0 3 2 - is sufficiently low again for CaC0 3 to be undersaturated and the skeletons of first aragonite and then calcite dissolve again.

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