Biologie de la memoire by Georges Chapouthier

By Georges Chapouthier

C’est grâce à l. a. mémoire que nous nous rappelons qui nous sommes, qui sont nos proches, où nous habitons, ce que nous devons faire aujourd’hui…
C’est grâce à elle que nous parlons plusieurs langues, que nous fredonnons des chansons, que nous conduisons notre voiture sans y penser et que nous retrouvons nos clefs.
Et lorsqu’elle s’effondre, nous en perdons notre identité.
Dans ce livre complet et limpide, Georges Chapouthier, l’un de nos meilleurs spécialistes, fait l. a. synthèse de ce que nous avons appris ces trente dernières années sur les différents forms de mémoire et sur los angeles mosaïque de leurs mécanismes moléculaires. Il montre aussi que l. a. mémoire a partie liée avec l’anxiété.

Georges Chapouthier, directeur de recherche au CNRS, anime une équipe du laboratoire « Vulnérabilité, variation et psychopathologie » à l’hôpital de los angeles Pitié-Salpêtrière de l’université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie. Il a publié L’Homme, ce singe en mosaïque.

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Biologie de la memoire

C’est grâce à l. a. mémoire que nous nous rappelons qui nous sommes, qui sont nos proches, où nous habitons, ce que nous devons faire aujourd’hui… C’est grâce à elle que nous parlons plusieurs langues, que nous fredonnons des chansons, que nous conduisons notre voiture sans y penser et que nous retrouvons nos clefs.

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Sovereignty is the right to sail the metaphorical ship of state on the open oceans regulated by international law without being told where to head but only how to proceed. This is the traditional image of the state in the old sovereignty game. The original players were governments which had successfully asserted sovereignty in the past, had never surrendered it or suc­ cumbed to another state, and consequently had a strong historical right to play the game. When the United States achieved freedom from the British Empire through its war of independence or when Japan avoided Western imperialism, empirical statehood and the derivative positive title to sovereignty was demonstrated.

The responsibility of an individual consists entirely in externally oriented actions: it is owed to others. But the responsibility of a sovereign government is both external to other sovereigns and internal to its citizens. The harm principle for an individual, according to Mill, concerns only the harm that can be done to other individuals which would infringe on their negative liberty. But the harm principle for a state concerns not only infringements on the sovereignty of other states but also on the liberty of its citizens.

N E G A T I V E S O V E R E I G NTY A N D P O S I T I V E SOVEREIGNTY Embedded i n the foregoing remarks is a concept of negative and positive sovereignty that shapes the analysis in the chapters which follow. It is derived from the cognate ideas of negative and positive liberty made famous by Isaiah Berlin. 16 Liberty is possessed by individ­ uals, of course, whereas sovereignty is a property of states. In applying Berlin's distinction to international relations I make no claim that 26 · N E G A T I V E S O V E R E IG NTY A N D P O S I T IVE SOV EREI GNTY individuals are strictly analogous to states: the domestic analogy.

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