By Eric B. Kraus, Joost A. Businger
With either the starting to be significance of integrating experiences of air-sea interplay and the curiosity within the basic challenge of worldwide warming, the looks of the second one variation of this well known textual content is principally welcome. completely up-to-date and revised, the authors have retained the available, accomplished expository variety that unusual the sooner version. issues comprise the kingdom of subject close to the interface, radiation, floor wind waves, turbulent move close to the interface, the planetary boundary layer, atmospherically-forced perturbations within the oceans, and large-scale forcing through sea floor buoyancy fluxes. This booklet may be welcomed through scholars and execs in meteorology, actual oceanography, physics and ocean engineering.
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Extra info for Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction (Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics)
9). When this is averaged we get It is customary in meterology and oceanography to speak of advection when we deal with a flux produced by the averaged velocities. The term convection is reserved for buoyancy-driven transport. In the free atmosphere and in the open ocean, the convective flux is much larger than the molecular diffusion. Like the latter, it can transfer matter when the mean mass flux pUi is zero or has a quite different direction. 16 ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN INTERACTION Near the sea surface, vertical variations are much more pronounced then variations along the horizontal.
70) is known as the Froude number It measures the ratio of inertial to gravitational accelerations. These can balance each other, for example, in the flow around large raindrops that have reached their terminal velocity. In this case Fr = 1. Froude numbers of order unity are also approached in gravity waves just before they break, or in violent cumulus convection. 70), where c is the phase speed of small amplitude gravity waves at the boundary of two infinitely deep inviscid fluids. 29) can be treated in a similar way.
If the temperature is kept invariant, realistic sea surface pressure and salinity changes would cause the value of the expansion coefficients to vary by less than 10–5. These changes are therefore negligible for most air-sea interaction studies. However, the effect of pressure changes cannot be neglected during deep convection or any large vertical displacements. The resulting problems have been studied and summarized by McDougall (1987). Empirical expressions for the thermal expansion coefficient as a function of pressure have been published by Bryden (1973).