By Miles McPhee
At a time whilst the polar areas are present process swift and extraordinary switch, realizing exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is important for realistically predicting the longer term nation of sea ice. via providing a size platform mostly unaffected by means of floor waves, drifting sea ice offers a special laboratory for learning points of geophysical boundary layer flows which are super tricky to degree in different places. This ebook attracts on either huge observations and theoretical rules to increase a concise description of the effect of rigidity, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that regulate exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean while sea ice is current. a number of attention-grabbing and particular observational information units are used to demonstrate various facets of ice-ocean interplay starting from the impression of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice region, to how nonlinearities within the equation of kingdom for seawater have an effect on blending within the Weddell Sea.
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Additional resources for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
7) 0 where n is frequency (if measurements are made in the time domain, as is the most common case) and Sw is the spectral density of the time series w. Spectral density is deﬁned as the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function. In practice, it is estimated as follows.
05 0 K m s-1 x 5 w x T9 10-5 15 10 5 0 -5 0 5 minutes Fig. 510 of 2005 during MaudNESS, Phase 2, Drift 1. 2 IOBL Measurement Techniques and Examples 47 With the bootstrap method, the time series is resampled randomly many times to build up a body of statistics for the likelihood of the sample mean occurring by chance. In practice this is done using a standard random number generator to produce a new artiﬁcial time series from the members of the original time series (not necessarily all, since one sample may reappear in the randomization many time), then calculating the mean of the artiﬁcial series.
3), with Pb = D = 0 (an approximate balance not uncommon in natural ﬂows) results in a balance between production of TKE by shear and dissipation, and provides a framework for discussing the scales involved in transferring kinetic energy from large scale instabilities (“energy-containing eddies”) where it is extracted from the mean ﬂow, to scales where molecular interaction is important. 01 m s−1 and λ = 2 m, so −3 a reasonable estimate of ε is 5 × 10−7 m2 s (the units are equivalent to W kg−1 ).